Nursing Diagnosis : Complete Guide & Examples for 2020
There is a lot of misunderstanding about what the term “Nursing Diagnosis” means and in order to clear it up, we must first understand what it is. When the nurse notices something that is wrong with your patient, she refers to it as a “diagnosis”.
If you were able to write out the symptoms of the condition, you might call it “diagnosis”, but the person who is experiencing the symptoms will call it a “diagnosis”. It all depends on who is calling it what.
There are two main ways that nurses can refer to a medical condition in the hospital. They could refer to it as a diagnosis, or as a nursing diagnosis. But there is a difference.
A medical condition is a condition that has a definite diagnosis. A nursing diagnosis is a diagnosis that has not been made yet. In other words, a nursing diagnosis is one that is still being considered.
A medical condition is something that has been medically confirmed. If the doctor can’t diagnose a medical condition with a definite medical history, they will refer the patient to a mental health nurse who will make the diagnosis for them.
Nursing Diagnosis can refer to medical conditions that have already been diagnosed. If the doctor can’t make a clear medical diagnosis for a patient, they will refer that patient to a psychiatrist, who will make the diagnosis for them.
The biggest problem with nursing diagnosis is that there are many types of mental health nurse that is used. When you have several types of nurses being used in a hospital, you have a huge number of possibilities for confusion. For example, what type of nurse is going to refer you to a psychiatrist for depression?
A psychiatrist is a very different nurse than a nurse that is just called in to assist with a patient. The confusion can be huge when there are so many nurses that are called into play at once.
There is a solution to the problem of confusion, but it is a problem that has to be done in conjunction with the doctor. The doctor has to provide the patient with a medical history in order to make a clear medical diagnosis.
When you go to the doctor’s office to get a prescription for something, the doctor will not only ask you about your medical history, but he will also ask you about your family medical history. If you have a family member that has a serious mental illness, you are going to have to give the doctor all of the information about them and what you know about them.
When you go to the psychiatrist to get a prescription for something, you will not be asked any questions about your medical history. You will be asked some basic questions about your family medical history and what type of mental illness they have.
The nurse that is going to make the diagnosis for you will know more about the type of mental health nurse that will be helping you and more about the type of medical history that you need to provide. The nurse will be able to give you the correct medical diagnosis from all the information that the doctor has to offer.
So, when you go to the doctor’s office to get a prescription, you will know that the nurse that is going to make the nursing diagnosis for you will be called by a doctor. When you go to the psychiatrist for treatment, you will know that the nurse is going to be called by a psychiatrist.
Nursing Diagnosis is not always a problem, but there are some nursing diagnoses that are not always helpful. If the nurse is confusing the two, you can be sure that you are going to have a lot of confusion.
The term psychosocial is derived from two separate words: psycho and social. As the term signifies, psychosocial disorders are mental health disorders caused by some or many social factors. Psychological disorders are becoming common among masses due to strained economic stress, family pressures and other life problems. Due to these issues generate mental stress, anxiety, and depression, among other mental health diseases.
To mention here, psychosocial mental diseases are the diseases caused by or linked to social factors or social reasons. Sometimes a social trauma can have a severe and long lasting impact on a person and leave him with nothing but psychological disorders.
Classification of Psychosocial Disorders:
Psychosocial disorders can be many in many forms. Some of the important psychosocial disorders are discussed below:
There are some physical disorders that cause mental disorders directly or indirectly. To mention some, epilepsy and diabetes can cause AIDs and stress disorders respectively. To eliminate these disorders, psychosocial nursing diagnosis methods are used and the disease is tried to be cured by addressing its root cause.
Adjustment issues upto some extent are normal, however, if these issues pertain to every condition and become a part of life, then it is a serious issue and needs proper attention. We all have adjustment issues with people, places, or things but these issues are normal if limited. If a person feels uncomfortable with almost every place, person, or thing, or new experiences, then he needs psychological care and cure.
Mood Swings Disorder:
Overthinking is also linked with this kind of disorder. Patients with mood swings disorder could be really happy at one time and suddenly lose their temper suddenly. This type of disease can also be cured with psychosocial nursing diagnosis.
This disorder is related to eating habits and preferences. It is mostly common in western states, especially in women, and more specifically in teenage girls. People with edible disorder attain anorexia or bulimia nervosa. In anorexia, the patient becomes too cautious about weight gain and tries to eat less. This causes abnormal weight loss, fatigue and loss of energy. In bulimia nervosa, patients eat a large amount of food and then try to counter it by reducing the amount of meal to a huge extent. Patients often try to vomit out the food taken. This kind of disease is also cured by psychosocial nursing diagnosis.
This disorder includes diseases like dementia, alzhiemers, and amnesia, in which individuals face memory loss upto the extent depending on the severity of the disease. This disease is linked with brain cells and their activity. Over a period of time, the brain cells stop working properly causing the patient with short or long term memory losses and other serious illnesses.
Causes of Psychosocial Disorders:
Psychosocial disorders can be caused by a number of factors like:
- Economic instability
- Social burdens
- Religious issues
- Family problems etc.
Problems Related to Psychosocial Disorders:
All the above discussed factors can cause various psychosocial disorders that develop various problems for patients. These problems include:
- Lack of self confidence and self esteem
- Anxiety and severe stress
- Antisocial behaviour
- Parenting issues
- Inability to cope with social problems
- Suicide related thoughts
- Restlessness and tiredness
- Breastfeeding issues
- Lack of hope
- Social anxiety
- Inability to cope with problems
Psychosocial Nursing Diagnosis Techniques and Care Plans:
Psychiatric nursing care plans or psychosocial nursing care plans are those that are used by psychiatrists to cure patients with psychosocial disorders. These are a set of predefined plans that are processed on psychiatric patients. Some of these plans are discussed below:
Prescribed Therapies to be done with Families and Friends:
Psychiatric prescribes a set of practices and therapies to friends and family members of the patient. Family members or friends are those social circles that are not time bound. Therefore, it is easy for the family members to practice these therapies on the patient without setting aside any specific time.
It is a kind of cure in which a patient is motivated under certain circumstances to do or undergo certain activities that he might not do due to his psychosocial disorder. It is a kind of therapeutic cure through which some favourable conditions are established that might interest or motivate the patient in performing certain tasks that are necessary to cure his mental condition. To give an example, a patient with an eating disorder can be cautioned about weight loss or deprivation of certain important nutrients. This becomes a trigger for the patient to alter his illness through these reinforcement measures.
Assessment and Interview:
This is a direct one to one interaction between doctor and patient. In this live interaction, patient is asked a set of questionnaires and made to answer them, while at the same time his facial expressions along with his answers are read and noted. This is the most effective way to assess a patient’s condition and to treat him accordingly.
In this method a set of questions are distributed among patients of preferably the same kind of disorder to seek some answers in order to analyse and cure the disease. This is quite an easy but not a perfect method to treat patients with psychological disorders. The reason is that a patient while answering the questions could wrongly answer the questions and portray his false behaviour and personality. In this way, it becomes hard to assess the true condition of the patient in some cases. Thus, it is not a highly recommended care option.
Psychological Sessions and Therapies:
In this case, patients undergo various sessions in which they are afforded with certain therapies. Therapy is always a better option, whether it be physical or psychological. This is a natural way to get the patient back to his normal life. In this case all negative thoughts and reservations should be avoided as therapies cause a slow recovery and it is very easy for the patient to doubt the process.